# Fundamentals of electric circuits

## fundamentals of electric circuits

fundamentals of electric circuits: As students, you’re needed to check mathematics, science, and engineering with the aim of having the ability to use that data to the answer of engineering issues. The ability here is that the ability to use the basics of those areas within the resolution of a retardant. So however does one develop and enhance this skill?

Electric circuits are methods to show the   how an electric Device receives power and perform  the task .

An nothing but it is route or path to give directions to the electric current . It flows in this path only  . Some times the path is closed or sometimes the path is not closed . If the path or route is connected to starting point it is called as closed loop circuit ,if the path or route is not connected to the starting point it is called open loop circuit .

#### It has components they are namely:

1. Resistors
2. Batteries
3. Switches
4. Bulbs
5. Capacitors

These are connected in a open loop are closed loop . By using this the current is flows in the circuit .not only this components it has more components it use more components .

The collection of switches , capacitors , batteries , resistors, transformers , wire in one device is electric circuit .

In this we have series and parallel connections . To connect the device we use series connection or parallel connection . sometimes we use both serious and parallel connection in one device only . We can able to use both connections in one device only .

In our house also we have electric circuit . It transfer the current . In our house the circuit take 120 volts this volts calculated as energy per unit charge .

Take an example of flashlight  has batteries to give  power to a light bulb, the wires are act as medium to bring the current from batteries to the bulb and it has a switch to act as a action i.e, on ,off.

The bulb has a batteries ,wires ,switch  and this bulb mechanical con  hold them and make them waterproof .this operation can be designed by electric circuit. To protect the flow of electric current it has wires and switches these are insulators . Insulators nothing but it doesn’t easily support to the current .

The electric circuits shows the representation of operations of bulbs , tv , motors , cooler ,ac , generators , heater, personal computers, mobile phones  etc.

Not only electrical Devices are used  electric circuits also non electrical Devices are use this electrics . They are heat transfer circuits , science systems , etc.

### A simple electric circuit

A simple electric circuit is shown in post simple electronic projects with circuit diagram. It consists of 3 basic elements: electric battery, a lamp, and connecting wires. Such an easy circuit will exist by itself; it’s many applications, like a electric lamp, a search light, even so.

#### Charge and Current

The idea of electrical charge is that the underlying principle for explaining all electrical phenomena. Also, the foremost basic amount in an electrical circuit is that the charge. We all expertise the result of electrical charge after we attempt to take away our wool sweater and have it persist with our body or walk across a carpet and receive a shock. Charge is associate electrical property of the atomic particles of that matter consists, measured in coulombs (C).

Electric current is that the time rate of amendment of charge, measured in amperes (A).

A direct current (dc) could be a current that continues to be constant with time.

An alternating current (ac) could be a current that varies sinusoidally with time.

#### Voltage

to move the electron during a conductor in a very specific direction needs some work or energy transfer. This work is performed by an external electromotive force (emf), typically represented by the battery in Figure. This electromotive force is additionally referred to as voltage or potential.

Voltage (or potential difference) is that the energy needed to maneuver a unit charge through a component, measured in volts (V).

#### Power and Energy

Power is the time rate of expending or absorbing energy, measured in watts (W).

Energy is that the capability to try and do work, measured in joules (J).

#### Circuit Elements

an element is that the basic building block of a circuit.

an element is that the basic building block of a circuit.

There are 2 kinds of components found in electrical circuits: passive elements and active elements. An active element is capable of generating energy whereas a passive element isn’t. Examples of passive components are resistors, capacitors, and inductors. Typical active components embody generators, batteries, and operational amplifiers.

We know the solar cells. The main concept of solar cell in light energy into electric current . We can see the solar cells in multiple representations one of this is in the form of electric circuit . By using electric circuit we can represent the operation of solar cell .

## Electric circuits components :

Ground or earth , resistor , capacitor , switch , antenna , fuse , motor , inductor , transformer , source , diode , diode led , etc.

### Earth :

Earth is nothing but it show the starting point or zero potential reference point from where we can measure the current .

### Resistor :

It is used to control the electric flow it can used to reduce the flow of current

### Switch :

In switch we have on / off ,open /close .if you open or off  the switch it disconnect the current and if you close or on the switch it automatically connect to the current .

### Capacitor :

It is used to store the electric energy it is doesn’t divide the current . It has two terminals.

### Fuse :

When  current is cross the limit line this fuse protect the electric circuit.

### Inductor :

Coil or reactor are other names to inductor.

### Transformer :

It is a combination of inductors by magnetic induction .

### Motor :

To get mechanical energy from electric energy we use this motor .

## Topologies of  Electric circuit :

Consider a complicated system with many components and a complex network of wires to connect them. These components and their connecting wires might fit into a 3D space, meaning that themselves might be crossing other elements. However, the type of circuit studied in this book must fit only in an 2D plane, and no wires or elements should pass any other side or element.

An unacceptable example of a circuit that has components and wire cross each other, and its acceptable version

A circuit build 3D and an acceptable flat version of the circuit. Resistor and wire connectors not pass over each other . A 2D circuit that has two elements of the wires crossing should be presented in a topology with no wires or elements crossing. A separate path on the surface can be found to prevent crossing.

### Hinged circuit :

If an electric circuit is such that it divided  into two half parts  such that the connecting point does not have any current passing on any direction towards two parts ,the circuit is called electrically hinged. This makes the two parts of the circuit essentially independent unless there is a magnetic coupling or other form of coupling that influence them.

There is no current passing through the resistors R,and the circuit is hinged at the node that connects to the resistors

Hinged circuits may also occur as a result of voltage and current source configuration in the circuit. This is when a voltage source feeds a current source in series. This redundancy may cause a hinged circuit.

The current source in the left circuit is redundancy, and the circuit is hinged. The voltage source in the right circuit is redundancy, and the circuits is signed . These circuit are discussed in more detail in the later chapter.

### Measurement unit of electric circuits :

If we see the world different country measurements are different.

Large -L – measured in meter (M) , mass – M- measured in kilogram(kg) , time – T – measured in seconds (s) , electric current -(I) -measured in ampere(A), electric charge -q – measured in coulomb

## Types of fundamentals of electric circuits:

They are 5 types of Electric circuit they are namely

• Close circuit
• Open circuit
• Short circuit
• Series circuit
• Parallel circuit

### Close circuit :

Closed circuit means the current is flows around the circuit without break from starting point to ending point . Without interruption the current flows around the circuit .  The starting and ending points are same  in this .

For example if the current flows start from A  and it reach to starting point i.e. , A which is called close circuit

### Open circuit :

Open circuit means the current is flows with a break . The current flows is not reach to the starting point .  Disturbens is occur at the time of current flows

For example the current flow start from A and it reaches to the another pointer and it not reach again to the starting point . it is open loop . The starting and ending points are different in open loop .

### Short circuit :

Simply the short circuit means the connection is less or  low impedance  between two conductors. It may gives sometimes shock also because of more current pass theou the loose connection by this we may get shocks  and also it produce heat .

If you find that your device is contains short circuit you must repair it . Determine where the short circuit is occurring . After that you have to replace the wire and reconnect it .

### Series circuit :

In series circuit they have only one path , through that path all the connection is made in this if one device is not work total connection is interrupted  because of one device output become the another device output . If one device get interruption in series circuit remaining devices not get input by this they are stopped.

The best example of series circuit is Christmas lights .they have series connection in that if one bulb not work all the bulbs are not work .

### Parallel circuit :

Unlike series circuit the parallel circuit has 2 or 3 paths  , In this the paths have same voltage and if you sum the all the current in all the paths is equal to the total current. If one device is get interruption not all the devices get interruption because they have different paths they work normally , they don’t get any problem .

For example in our office or house any where we use parallel connection this provides same voltage to all the devices . If one device is get interruption other devices are still work same .

##### Question of the day

Which of these is not an electrical quantity? (a) charge. (b) time. (c) voltage. (d) current. (e) power. (Comment)

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